About me


Consultant,  Specialist in Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Department of  Medicine, Nyköping Hospital, Sörmland County, Sweden

Research affiliations

- Health Systems & Policy, Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet

- Centre for Clinical Research Sörmland, Eskilstuna, Uppsala University

Research description



My research interests are in the fields of global health, health systems, critical care and internal medicine. More specifically my focus is how to best use the potential of basic, feasible, low-cost actions in health care that are often overlooked in policy, research and medical practice.

Current projects:

- Essential Emergency and Critical Care: developing a research programme around the concept which is defined as the care critically ill patients should receive in all hospitals in the world.

- The Critical Illness and Sepsis Prevalence and Outcome Study (CRISPOS). A point prevalence study in district and referral hospitals in Malawi, Sri Lanka and Sweden. All inpatients, regardless of speciality or location in the hospital, are examined on the same day. Vital signs are taken, and ongoing treatments recorded. Primary aims are to estimate the prevalence of critical illness, hospital mortality rates and the risk of death for critically ill patients. Secondary aims are an assessment of the quality of care and the predictive value of signs such as ability to walk, capillary refill time, early warning scores and danger signs.



1. Schell, C. O., Wellhagen, A., Lipcsey, M., Kurland, L., Bjurling-Sjöberg, P., Lundborg, C. S., ... & Baker, T. (2023). The burden of critical illness among adults in a Swedish region–a population-based point-prevalence study. https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2596542/v1

2. Khalid, K., Schell, C. O., Oliwa, J., English, M., Onyango, O., Mcknight, J., ... & Baker, T. (2023). Hospital readiness for the provision of care to critically ill patients in Tanzania-an indepth cross-sectional study. https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-2756348/v1


Publications in scientific journals

1. Shah HA,  Baker T,  Schell CO,  Kuwawenaruwa A,  Awadh K,  Khalid K,  Kairu A,  Were V,  Barasa E,  Baker P,  Guinness L. Cost Effectiveness of Strategies for Caring for Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19 in Tanzania. PharmacoEconomics - open 2023 ;


2. Guinness L,  Kairu A,  Kuwawenaruwa A,  Khalid K,  Awadh K,  Were V,  Barasa E,  Shah H,  Baker P,  Schell CO,  Baker T. Essential emergency and critical care as a health system response to critical illness and the COVID19 pandemic: what does it cost?. Cost effectiveness and resource allocation : C/E 2023 21;1 15-


3. Mkumbo E,  Willows TM,  Onyango O,  Khalid K,  Maiba J,  Schell CO,  Oliwa J,  McKnight J,  Baker T. Same label, different patients: Health-workers' understanding of the label 'critical illness'. Frontiers in health services 2023 3; 1105078-


4. Buowari DY,  Owoo C,  Gupta L,  Schell CO,  Baker T,  EECC Network Group. Essential Emergency and Critical Care: A Priority for Health Systems Globally. Critical care clinics 2022 38;4 639-656


5. Hvarfner A,  Al-Djaber A,  Ekström H,  Enarsson M,  Castegren M,  Baker T,  Schell CO. Oxygen provision to severely ill COVID-19 patients at the peak of the 2020 pandemic in a Swedish district hospital. PloS one 2022 17;1 e0249984-


6. Kazibwe J,  Shah HA,  Kuwawenaruwa A,  Schell CO,  Khalid K,  Tran PB,  Ghosh S,  Baker T,  Guinness L. Resource use, availability and cost in the provision of critical care in Tanzania: a systematic review. BMJ open 2022 12;11 e060422-


7. Kayambankadzanja RK,  Schell CO,  Warnberg MG,  Tamras T,  Mollazadegan H,  Holmberg M,  Alvesson HM,  Baker T. Towards definitions of critical illness and critical care using concept analysis. BMJ OPEN 2022 12;9 e060972-


8. Schell CO,  Khalid K,  Wharton-Smith A,  Oliwa J,  Sawe HR,  Roy N,  Sanga A,  Marshall JC,  Rylance J,  Hanson C,  Kayambankadzanja RK,  Wallis LA,  Jirwe M,  Baker T,  EECC Collaborators,  EECC Collaborators*. Essential Emergency and Critical Care: a consensus among global clinical experts. BMJ global health 2021 6;9


9. Kazibwe J,  Shah HA,  Kuwawenaruwa A,  Schell CO,  Khalid K,  Tran PB,  Ghosh S,  Baker T,  Guinness L. Resource availability, utilisation and cost in the provision of critical care in Tanzania: a protocol for a systematic review. BMJ open 2021 11;8 e050881-


10. Kayambankadzanja RK,  Schell CO,  Mbingwani I,  Mndolo SK,  Castegren M,  Baker T. Unmet need of essential treatments for critical illness in Malawi. PloS one 2021 16;9 e0256361-


11. Baker T,  Schell CO,  Petersen DB,  Sawe H,  Khalid K,  Mndolo S,  Rylance J,  McAuley DF,  Roy N,  Marshall J,  Wallis L,  Molyneux E. Essential care of critical illness must not be forgotten in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet (London, England) 2020 395;10232 1253-1254


12. Kayambankadzanja RK,  Schell CO,  Namboya F,  Phiri T,  Banda-Katha G,  Mndolo SK,  Bauleni A,  Castegren M,  Baker T. The Prevalence and Outcomes of Sepsis in Adult Patients in Two Hospitals in Malawi. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 2020 102;4 896-901


13. Hvarfner A,  Blixt J,  Schell CO,  Castegren M,  Lugazia ER,  Mulungu M,  Litorp H,  Baker T. Vital Signs Directed Therapy for the Critically Ill: Improved Adherence to the Treatment Protocol Two Years after Implementation in an Intensive Care Unit in Tanzania. EMERGENCY MEDICINE INTERNATIONAL 2020 2020; 4819805-


14. Schell CO,  Beane A,  Kayambankadzanja RK,  Khalid K,  Haniffa R,  Baker T. Global Critical Care: Add Essentials to the Roadmap. Annals of global health 2019 85;1


15. Kayambankadzanja RK,  Schell CO,  Nsanjama G,  Mbingwani I,  Mndolo SK,  Rylance J,  Baker T. Inability to Walk Predicts Death among Adult Patients in Hospitals in Malawi. EMERGENCY MEDICINE INTERNATIONAL 2019 2019; 6586891-


16. Haniffa R,  Beane A,  Baker T,  Riviello ED,  Schell CO,  Dondorp AM. Development and internal validation of the Simplified Mortality Score for the Intensive Care Unit (SMS-ICU). Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2018 62;3 407-408


17. Schell CO,  Gerdin Wärnberg M,  Hvarfner A,  Höög A,  Baker U,  Castegren M,  Baker T. The global need for essential emergency and critical care. Critical care (London, England) 2018 22;1 284-


18. Schell CO,  Castegren M,  Lugazia E,  Blixt J,  Mulungu M,  Konrad D,  Baker T. Erratum to: Severely deranged vital signs as triggers for acute treatment modifications on an intensive care unit in a low-income country. BMC research notes 2017 10;1 365-


19. Schell CO,  Castegren M,  Lugazia E,  Blixt J,  Mulungu M,  Konrad D,  Baker T. Severely deranged vital signs as triggers for acute treatment modifications on an intensive care unit in a low-income country. BMC research notes 2015 8; 313-


20. Baker T,  Blixt J,  Lugazia E,  Schell CO,  Mulungu M,  Milton A,  Castegren M,  Eriksen J,  Konrad D. Single Deranged Physiologic Parameters Are Associated With Mortality in a Low-Income Country. Critical care medicine 2015 43;10 2171-9


21. Baker T,  Schell CO,  Lugazia E,  Blixt J,  Mulungu M,  Castegren M,  Eriksen J,  Konrad D. Vital Signs Directed Therapy: Improving Care in an Intensive Care Unit in a Low-Income Country. PloS one 2015 10;12 e0144801-


22. Serrander M,  Schell CO. [Experiences from various hospitals--too unequal care in Sweden]. Lakartidningen 2014 111;14 624-5


23. Schell CO,  Reilly M,  Rosling H,  Peterson S,  Ekström AM. Socioeconomic determinants of infant mortality: a worldwide study of 152 low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Scandinavian journal of public health 2007 35;3 288-97


24. Mogensen L,  Olsson M,  Schell CO. [Marfan syndrome--diagnosis within many specialties]. Lakartidningen 2000 97;5 464-8


Teaching portfolio

2014-18: Director of Resident training program, Department of Internal Medicine, Nyköpings Hospital

2009-13: Head of Internship Program, Department of Internal Medicine, Nyköping Hospital


Higher education degree

1997-2004       M.D.  Karolinska Institutet

Diploma / Other

1995-1996       Certificat pratique de Langue Française, 1er Degré, Université Paul Valéry, Montpellier III

1994-1997       Studies in Law, Philosophy, French, Stockholm University