Research description

Environmental risk- and prognostic factors in inflammatory diseases and musculoskeletal disorders

One large part of the research within the Unit of Cardiovascular Epidemiology is directed towards studying environmental risk- and prognostic factors in different inflammatory diseases and musculoskeletal disorders. The strategy has been to combine epidemiological methods with clinical parameters.


  • EIRA (Epidemiologic Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis)
  • EIMS (Epidemiological investigation of risk factors for Multiple Sclerosis)
  • GEMS (Epidemiologic Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis)
  • IMSE 1 and IMSE 2 (Immunomodulatory drugs in Multiple Sclerosis)
  • MUSIC (The Musculoskeletal Intervention Center)
  • Myositis (Chronic rheumatic muscle inflammation)
  • WOLF (Work, Lipids and Fibrinogen)

Five selected publications

Ding B, Källberg H, Klareskog L, Padyukov L, Alfredsson L.

GEIRA: gene-environment and gene-gene interaction research application.

Eur J Epidemiol. 2011 Jul;26(7):557-61.

Link to the abstract in PubMed


Källberg H, Ding B, Padyukov L, Bengtsson C, Rönnelid J, Klareskog L, Alfredsson L.

Smoking is a major preventable risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis: estimations of risks after various exposures to cigarette smoke. EIRA Study Group.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2011 Mar;70(3):508-11.

Link to the abstract in PubMed


Hedström AK, Sundqvist E, Bäärnhielm M, Nordin N, Hillert J, Kockum I, Olsson T, Alfredsson L.

Smoking and two human leukocyte antigen genes interact to increase the risk for multiple sclerosis.

Brain. 2011 Mar;134(Pt 3):653-64.

Link to the abstract in PubMed


Stolt P, Yahya A, Bengtsson C, Källberg H, Rönnelid J, Lundberg I, Klareskog L, Alfredsson L; EIRA Study Group.

Silica exposure among male current smokers is associated with a high risk of developing ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis.

Ann Rheum Dis. 2010 Jun;69(6):1072-6.

Link to the abstract in PubMed


Mahdi H, Fisher B, Källberg H, Plant D, Malmström V, Rönnelid J, Charles P, Ding B, Alfredsson L, Padyukov L. Symmons DPM, Venables PJ, Klareskog L, Lundberg K.

Specific interaction between genotype, smoking and autoimmunity to citrullinated alfa-enolase in the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis.

Nature Genetics. 2009 Dec;41(12):1319-24.

Link to the abstract in PubMed