Articles and webinars on integrating sex or gender in research

Here we provide a dynamic list of articles and webinars that showcase how you can enrich your research by including aspects of sex or gender that are relevant to your work.

Anslagstavla med publikationer
Publications Photo: Cecilia Bodén


Estrogen receptor activation remodels TEAD1 gene expression to alleviate hepatic steatosis Sommerauer C... Kutter C. Molecular Systems Biology 8 March 2024  

Related KI News article


Epigenetic modulators link mitochondrial redox homeostasis to cardiac function in a sex-dependent manner. ElBeck Z... Betsholtz, C. (2024).  Nature Communications, 15(1), 1-23.

Related KI News article

A toolkit for capturing a representative and equitable sample in health research. Retzer A... Calvert M (2023). Nature Medicine, 29(12), 3259-3267. 


Research articles

Xist ribonucleoproteins promote female sex-biased autoimmunity Dou DR... Chang HY. Cell Volume 187, Issue 3, 1 February 2024, Pages 733-749.e16

Related News article in Nature


CYP46A1-mediated cholesterol turnover induces sex-specific changes in cognition and counteracts memory loss in ovariectomized mice Latorre-Leal M... Maioli S. Science Advances 10,eadj1354(2024).

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Related The Conversation article


Sex differences in brain atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies Oltra J, Habich A... Ferreira D. (2023). Alzheimer's and Dementia.

Related KI News article


Epigenetic mechanisms underlying sex differences in the brain and behavior. Kundakovic M and Tickerhoof M. (2023)  Trends Neurosci. 13:S0166-2236(23)00225-4. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 37968206.

Sex differences in energy metabolism: Natural selection, mechanisms and consequences. Mauvais-Jarvis, F. (2023). Nature Reviews Nephrology, 1-14. 

Esr1+ hypothalamic-habenula neurons shape aversive states Nature Neuroscience, online 22 June 2023. Daniela Calvigioni, Janos Fuzik, Pierre Le Merre, Marina Slashcheva, Felix Jung, Cantin Ortiz, Antonio Lentini, Veronika Csillag, Marta Graziano, Ifigeneia Nikolakopoulou, Moritz Weglage, Iakovos Lazaridis, Hoseok Kim, Irene Lenzi, Hyunsoo Park, Björn Reinius, Marie Carlén, Konstantinos Meletis

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ARG1-expressing microglia show a distinct molecular signature and modulate postnatal development and function of the mouse brain Nature Neuroscience (2023) Jun;26(6):1008-1020. doi: 10.1038/s41593-023-01326-3. Epub 2023 May 11. V Stratoulias... B Joseph

Statistical simulations show that scientists need not increase overall sample size by default when including both sexes in in vivo studies PLoS Biology (2023) June 8, 2023 B Phillips, TN Haschler, NA Karp 

FPR2 shapes an immune-excluded pancreatic tumor microenvironment and drives T-cell exhaustion in a sex-dependent manner Cancer Research, online 15 March 2023, doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-22-2932. F He... D Sarhan.

Related KI News article

Sex trouble: Sex/gender slippage, sex confusion, and sex obsession in machine learning using electronic health records. Albert K and Delano M. (2022) Patterns, 3(8).

Sex Differences in Clinical Features, Treatment, and Lifestyle Factors in Patients With Cluster Headache Neurology (2022) December 21. C Fourier... AC Belin

Multimorbidity and Sickness Absence/Disability Pension in Cluster Headache Patients and Matched References: A Swedish Register-Based Study  Neurology (2022) December 14. C Ran... C Sjöstrand

Sex differences and risk factors for bleeding in Alagille syndrome  EMBO Mol Med (2022)e15809  S. Hankeova... ER Andersson

Sex Differences in Mental Health Problems and Psychiatric Hospitalization in Autistic Young Adults JAMA Psychiatry 2022 Oct 26;e223475. doi: 10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2022.3475. MI Martini... MJ Taylor

Sex- and age-dependent genetics of longevity in a heterogeneous mouse population Science 2022 Sep 30;377(6614):eabo3191. MB Sleiman... J Auwerx

Gene regulation by gonadal hormone receptors underlies brain sex differences Nature (2022).  B Gegenhuber, MV Wu, R Bronstein & J Tollkuhn

Sex-specific multi-level 3D genome dynamics in the mouse brain Nature Communications 13: 3438 (2022) D Rock ... M Kundakovic

Sex Differences in the Recognition, Monitoring and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease in Health Care. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, July 29, 2022. O Swartling... Juan Jesus Carrero. 

Androgen conspires with the CD8+ T cell exhaustion program and contributes to sex bias in cancer Science Immunology, 14 Apr 2022, DOI: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abq2630

Age-associated impairment of T cell immunity is linked to sex-dimorphic elevation of N-glycan branching Nature Aging volume 2, pages231–242 (2022). H Mkhikian... M Demetriou

Formyl peptide receptor 2 determines sex-specific differences in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 578 (2022). C Lee... Y Jung

Deep phenotyping of Alzheimer’s disease leveraging electronic medical records identifies sex-specific clinical associations Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 675 (2022). AS Tang... M Sirota

Long-term male-specific chronic pain via telomere- and p53‑mediated spinal cord cellular senescence J Clin Invest 2022 Apr 15;132(8):e151817. A Muralidharan... JS Mogil

Polymorphic estrogen receptor binding site causes Cd2-dependent sex bias in the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases Nature Communications 2021 Sep 22;12(1):5565. GF Lahore... R Holmdahl

Sexual dimorphism in glucose metabolism is shaped by androgen-driven gut microbiome Nature Communications volume 12, Article number: 7080 (2021), A Gao... W Wang

X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency in ~1% of men under 60 years old with life-threatening COVID-19Science Immunology 20 Aug 2021, Vol 6, Issue 62. T Asano... J-L Casanova 

Sex-specific phenotypic effects and evolutionary history of an ancient polymorphic deletion of the human growth hormone receptor Science Advances, 24 Sep 2021 • Vol 7, Issue 39 

Kynurenic acid may underlie sex-specific immune responses to COVID-19 Science Signaling, 6 Jul 2021, Vol 14, Issue 690. Y Cai... CH Johnson

The impact of sex on gene expression across human tissuesScience 2020 11;369(6509). M Oliva... BE Stranger

Complement genes contribute sex-biased vulnerability in diverse disorders. Nature. 2020 May 11, N Kamitaki... SA McCarroll.

Male-Specific Conditioned Pain Hypersensitivity in Mice and Humans Curr Biol 2020 Feb 3;30(3):556-559. LJ Martin... JS Mogil

Type 2 diabetes risk gene Dusp8 regulates hypothalamic Jnk signaling and insulin sensitivity. J Clin Invest 2020;130(11):6093–6108. SC Schriever...PT Pfluger

Association of Sex With Severity of Coronary Artery Disease, Ischemia, and Symptom Burden in Patients With Moderate or Severe Ischemia. JAMA Cardiology 2020;5(7):773-786. HR Reynolds...Judith S. Hochman

What did you do yesterday? A meta-analysis of sex differences in episodic memory. Psychological Bulletin, 145(8), 785–821. M Asperholm... A Herlitz

Microbiome Influences Prenatal and Adult Microglia in a Sex-Specific Manner. Cell Volume 172, Issue 3, 25 January 2018, Pages 500-516.e16. MS Thion... S Garel.

Identification of genetic elements in metabolism by high-throughput mouse phenotyping. Nat Communications 2018 Jan 18;9(1):288. J Rozman... M Hrabe de Angelis

Sex differences in lifespan extension with acarbose and 17-α estradiol: gonadal hormones underlie male-specific improvements in glucose tolerance and mTORC2 signaling. Aging Cell. 2017 Dec;16(6):1256-1266. M Garratt, B Bower, GG Garcia, RA Miller RA.

Prevalence of sexual dimorphism in mammalian phenotypic traitsNat Commun 2017;8:15475. Karp NA... JK White 

Gender Differences in Global but Not Targeted Demethylation in iPSC Reprogramming. Cell Reports Volume 18, Issue 5, 31 January 2017, Pages 1079-1089. I Milagre...W Reik.

Different immune cells mediate mechanical pain hypersensitivity in male and female mice. Nature Neuroscience volume 18, pages1081–1083 (2015). RE Sorge... JS Mogil.

Sex differences in the gut microbiome drive hormone-dependent regulation of autoimmunity. Science 339, 1084–1088 (2013). JGM Markle... JS Danska


Reviews and perspectives

Challenges with embedding an integrated sex and gender perspective into pain research: Recommendations and opportunities. Keogh, E., & Boerner, K. E. (2024). Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 117, 112-121.

Reflecting on Progress in and Establishing Benchmarks for Sex and Gender Health Education. Barr E... Werbinski J.  January 2024. Academic Medicine 99(1):p 16-21| DOI: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000005444 

Sex hormone fluctuation and increased female risk for depression and anxiety disorders: From clinical evidence to molecular mechanisms Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (online ahead of print) M Kundakovic and D Rock 

Gender dimension in cardio-pulmonary continuum Front Cardiovasc Med 2022 Aug 8;9:916194. L Hernandez... K Kublickiene, GOING-FWD Consortium

Sex dimorphism in the tumor microenvironment – From bench to bedside and back Seminars in Cancer Biology (online ahead of print) F He, AR Furones, Nils Landegren, J Fuxe, D Sarhan

Illuminating the Mechanisms Underlying Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Disease Circulation Research 2022;130:1747–1762. K Reue and CB Wiese

An analysis of neuroscience and psychiatry papers published from 2009 and 2019 outlines opportunities for increasing discovery of sex differences Nature Communications volume 13, Article number: 2137 (2022). RK Rechlin... LAM Galea

Science Forum: Sex differences and sex bias in human circadian and sleep physiology research eLife 2022;11:e65419 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.65419. M Spitchan... R White

The X in seX-biased immunity and autoimmune rheumatic disease J Exp Med 2022 Jun 6;219(6):e20211487. N Jiwrajka and MC Anguera 

Lack of consideration of sex and gender in COVID-19 clinical studies Nature Communications volume 12, Article number: 4015 (2021). E Brady.. S Oertelt-Prigione

Sex as an important factor in nanomedicine Nature Communications volume 12, Article number: 2984 (2021). MJ Hajipour... M Mahmoudi

Sex differences in immune responses Science 2021: Vol. 371, Issue 6527, pp. 347-348, Takehiro Takahashi and Akiko Iwasaki

Gender-related variables for health research Biology of Sex Differences 12, 23 (2021). Nielsen MW... Schiebinger L

Sex and gender: modifiers of health, disease, and medicine Lancet 2020 Aug 22;396(10250):565-582. F Mauvais-Jarvis... A Suzuki

Nyfiken på köns- och genusskillnader i hälsa? Medicinsk Vetenskap nr 3 2020

Reproducibility of animal research in light of biological variation. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 02 June 2020, 21, pages 384–393. Voelkl B... Hanno Würbel

Considering how biological sex impacts immune responses and COVID-19 outcomes. Nature Reviews Immunology 11 June 2020 EP Scully... SL Klein 

Sex hormones signal why virus hits men harderScience 05 Jun 2020: Vol. 368, Issue 6495, pp. 1038-1039. Meredith Wadman

Doing better: eleven ways to improve the integration of sex and gender in health research proposals Research Integrity and Peer Review volume 5, Article number: 15 (2020). R Mason 

Qualitative sex differences in pain processing: emerging evidence of a biased literature. Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 2020 May 21, JS Mogil

Sex and Gender Differences in Health: What the COVID-19 Pandemic Can Teach Us. Annals of Internal Medicine: 8 May 2020, doi:10.7326/M20-1941. PA Spagnolo, JE Manson, H Joffe.

Clinical Advances in Sex- and Gender-InformedMedicine to Improve the Health of All JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(4):574-583. D Bartz... JE Manson

Sex as a Biological Variable: A 5-Year Progress Report and Call to Action. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 Jan 22. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2019.8247. ME Arnegard, LA Whitten, C Hunter, JA Clayton 

The role of sex in the genomics of human complex traits. Nature Reviews Genetics 2019 Aug;20(8):494. doi: 10.1038/s41576-019-0148-9. EA Khramtsova, LK Davis, BE Stranger. 

Sex and gender analysis improves science and engineering. | Nature | Vol 575 | 7 November 2019 | C Tannenbaum, RP Ellis, F Eyssel, J Zou & L Schiebinger

Why the sexes don’t feel pain the same wayNature 567, 448-450 (2019) A. Dance

Sex Differences in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: State of the Art and Identification of Research Gaps. Hepatology, Vol. 70, No. 4, 2019. A. Lonardo... A. Suzuki

Sexual Dimorphism in the Age of Genomics: How, When, WhereFrontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 10.3389/fcell.2019.00186, 7, (2019). DF Deegan and N Engel

Sexual dimorphism in SLE: above and beyond sex hormones. Lupus 2019 Jan;28(1):3-10.Christou EAA...Boumpas DT

Sex-Gender Variable: Methodological Recommendations for Increasing Scientific Value of Clinical Studies Cells. 2019 May 17;8(5):476. F Franconi, I Campesi, D Colombo, P Antonini 

Rationale and tutorial for analysing and reporting sex differences in cardiovascular associations. Heart, 2019 M Woodward 

Applying the new SABV (sex as a biological variable) policy to research and clinical carePhysiology & Behavior Vol 187, 1 April 2018, p 2-5. JA Clayton

Nature and implications of sex differences in AD pathology Nature Reviews Neurology volume 15, pages6–8 (2019). RB Mofrad & WM. van der Flier

Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research. FASEB J. 2017 Jan;31(1):29-34. Miller LR... Clayton JA.

Sex matters for mechanism. Science Translational Medicine  15 Oct 2014: Vol. 6, Issue 258, pp. 258fs40. JS Danska

First steps for integrating sex and gender considerations into basic experimental biomedical research FASEB J 2014 Jan;28(1):4-13. SA Ritz... D Mergler

Female mice liberated for inclusion in neuroscience and biomedical researchNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 40 (2014) 1-5. BJ Prendergast, KG Onishi, I Zucker

Sex and gender differences in healthEMBO reports VOL 13 | NO 7 | 2012 V Regitz-Zagrosek

Sex-specific genetic architecture of human diseaseNature Reviews Genetics 9, 911–922 (2008) C. Ober, DA Loisel, Y Gilad


Webinars and workshops

'Sex As a Biological Variable (SABV) Policy and Sex-Inclusive Research: Making Progress, Taking Stock, and Visioning the Future'  2023 webinar hosted by the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) Sex and Gender in Health and Disease (SGHD) Scientific Interest Group (SIG).

Recordings of GENDER-NET Plus's Final Dissemination Conference “Promoting And Implementing The Sex And Gender Dimension Into Research” (13-14 Feb 2023)

Video on how to consider sex/gender in brain research — 2022 webinar hosted by the Human Brain Project, EU  

Sex immune dimorphism in cancer -- Towards gender-optimized (genderized) immunotherapy.  2022 presentation by Dhifaf Sarhan, Associate Professor at LABMED, KI

Sex bias in preclinical research, why it exists and how to drive change. Webinar by Natasha Karp, Director of Biostatistics, Quantitative Biology, Discovery Science, R&D, Astrazeneca, UK. November 26, 2021

'Pain, sex and death' webinar, Jeff S Mogil, McGill University, February 4, 2021

'Teach 1 Reach 1 - Academia’s Roll Call', a webinar on academia's role in incorporating sex and gender into research. July 8, 2021 

'Sex and gender dimension in frontier research', online workshop organised by the European Research Council, EU (16 November, 2020)


Funding opportunities

Gender in research fellowship -- Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) | Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek, NL

Learn how to integrate a sex and gender dimension in health research and clinical practice. The ZonMw Gender and Health Program is offering Gender in Research Fellowships for PhD students and post-doctoral researchers to attend the Gender and Health course and participate in the Gender in Research workshops at the Erasmus Summer Programme from 14-18 August 2023.